A gas mixture of tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) and silane (SiH4) is generally used to form the initial layer of tungsten (W) on titanium nitride (TiN). However, the nucleation mechanism is still not clear, thus making it difficult to optimize such processes for complete filling of via holes. Therefore, in this study, we examined the nucleation process by laser-reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These measurements indicate that W nucleation has two stages: monolayer formation followed by nucleation of three-dimensional (3D) islands. The monolayer formation can be expressed as Langmuir-type adsorption, and proceeds with the reduction of WF6 by Ti on TiN substrates. After monolayer formation, nucleation of 3D islands occurs and islands rapidly grow. These processes were quantitatively modeled using a simple rate equation. The results of our model agree well with our measurements of the deposited amount and coverage of islands.
|ジャーナル||Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers|
|出版ステータス||Published - 2004 6月|
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