An intra-arc rift (IAR) is developed behind the volcanic front in the Izu arc, Japan. Bimodal volcanism, represented by basalt and rhyolite lavas and hydrothermal activity, is active in the IAR. The constituent minerals in the rhyolite lavas are mainly plagioclase and quartz, whereas mafic minerals are rare and are mainly orthopyroxene without any hydrous minerals such as amphibole and biotite. Both the phenocryst and groundmass minerals have felsic affinities with a narrow compositional range. The petrological and bulk chemical characteristics are similar to those of melts from some partial melting experiments that also yield dry rhyolite melts. The hydrous mineral-free narrow mineral compositions and low-Al2O3 affinities of the IAR rhyolites are produced from basaltic middle crust under anhydrous low-temperature melting conditions. The IAR basalt lavas display prominent across-arc variation, with depleted elemental compositions in the volcanic front side and enriched compositions in the rear-arc side. The across-arc variation reflects gradual change in the slab-derived components, as demonstrated by decreasing Ba/Zr and Th/Zr values to the rear-arc side. Rhyolite lavas exhibit different across-arc variations in either the fluid-mobile elements or the immobile elements, such as Nb/Zr, La/Yb, and chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns, reflecting that the felsic magmas had different source. The preexisting arc crust formed during an earlier stage of arc evolution, most probably during the Oligocene prior to spreading of the Shikoku back-arc basin. The lack of systematic across-arc variation in the IAR rhyolites and their dry/shallow crustal melting origin combines to suggest re-melting of preexisting Oligocene middle crust by heat from the young basaltic magmatism.
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