Objective: This study examines the reliability and validity of the scale for outcome expectations (OE) and efficacy expectations (EE), two especially critical variables for predicting mental health promotion behaviour. Further, the relation between the two types of expectation and mental health promotion behaviour and whether these expectations varied according to changes in demographics were tested. Method: An online, cross-sectional study was conducted with 2485 participants in Japan. Participants were asked about demographic characteristics, OE, EE and current practices of mental health promotion behaviours. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed reliability and validity in both OE and EE. Further, the relation between the two types of expectation and mental health promotion behaviour was confirmed. Both OE (path coefficient = 0.18, p < 0.01) and EE (path coefficient = 0.62, p < 0.01) were associated with mental health promotion behaviour. Among variations in demographic characteristics of participants, small to medium effect sized generation gap of expectancy was found (OE: f = 0.13, p < 0.01; EE: f = 0.20, p < 0.01). Discussion: The present study demonstrates the potential for determinant roles of OE and EE for mental health promotion behaviours. These findings may encourage mental health promotion behaviours for individuals from any demographic background.
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