The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), which is also known as ghalyan, shisha or hookah, is increasing rapidly around the world, especially among youth. Growing interest in this form of tobacco smoking can be traced, in part, to the use of flavored tobacco products, social acceptability as a safer option than cigarettes, and its consideration as a relaxation method or entertainment. However, there is a well-established association between WTS and oxidative stress that causes irreversible chronic pathological conditions such as cardiovascular and respiratory problems, as well as different types of cancers, and thus increases the risk of mortality. Clearly, induction of inflammation status through increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn leads to oxidative stress and harm to lipids, DNA, and proteins, is the most plausible mechanism to explain the potential harmful effects of WTS. Unlike WTS, well-designed exercise training programs increase ROS to the extent that it is beneficial to the body. In this study, we aimed to review available evidence on the impact of exercise training on oxidative stress and inflammation status. We also summarize the effect of acute and chronic WTS on different exercise capacities.
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