The irradiation effects of oxygen on polysulfone have been investigated at energies of 20 keV, 150 keV and 2 MeV. The strong improvement of endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation is found on ion irradiated polysulfone at 20 keV. Such improvement is declined with increasing ion energy. The changes of surface color and free energy are strongly dependent on ion energy and dose. The formation of amorphous carbon phase is demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy and its degree is correspondent to the color changes observed. The formations of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups are confirmed by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy. The depletions of heteroatoms are conjectured by detail analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Since no single one of these changes can be related directly to the improved adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells on irradiated surface, we argue that the distribution of functional groups is crucial in promoting the adhesion of endothelial cells. Although the distribution cannot directly be detected at present, the irradiation effects were related to the results of TRIM simulation. The surface changes can be controlled by adjusting the size energy and dose of irradiating ion for the optimum morphology to cell adhesion. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
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