In this study, the spontaneous microstructure tuning of TiO2 was observed by aging the ethanol/water TiO2 paste for up to 20 days at ambient conditions. A dynamic light scattering study reveals that it formed the outstanding reproducible TiO2 microstructure with a ∼200 nm average particle size and stabilizes in 6 to 20 days under an ambient atmosphere. Interestingly, the as-deposited day 15 sample spontaneously changed its crystallinity upon keeping the paste at ambient conditions; meanwhile the day 0 sample showed an amorphous structure. A dense, uniform, and stable TiO2 electrode was cast on a fluorine doped-tin oxide substrate using the electrospray technique. We exploit the spontaneous evolution of the TiO2 nanopowder to revisit the fabrication procedure of the TiO2 photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The controlled microstructure TiO2 film was used in DSSCs, which, to the best of our knowledge, achieved the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.65% using N719 dye in sensitizing the TiO2 photoanode.
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