The circulatory level of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an anti-inflammatory cardioprotective protein, has been shown to be lower in obese individuals than in those with normal weight. However, reports on the effects of different weight-loss methods on PTX3 are limited. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of weight loss on circulating PTX3 levels in overweight and obese men and to examine the combined effect of dietary modification and exercise training on PTX3 levels. Forty-eight overweight and obese men were assigned to 2 groups: dietary modification (group D) or exercise training and dietary modification (group DE). Groups D and DE were composed of 27 and 21 participants, respectively. We observed a significant independent relationship between changes in PTX3 and body mass index (BMI) in all participants (β = −0.617, p < 0.01). Subsequently, we compared the effects of the 2 weight-loss methods on plasma PTX3 in groups D and DE. The magnitude of the increase in plasma PTX3 levels was similar in the 2 groups. Interestingly, we observed that PTX3 levels in group DE increased significantly more than those in group D in subjects who achieved normal weight, based on BMI, after interventions. Our study suggested that weight reduction after lifestyle modification significantly increased PTX3 levels in overweight and obese men, and the addition of habitual exercise to dietary modification enhanced the magnitude of the increase in PTX3 levels in obese individuals achieving normal weight after weight loss.
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