Activities of the cells are regulated by extracellular cues, including soluble factors, surrounding cells and extracellular matrices. This paper describes photoresponsive substrates and nanoparticles that enable us to control the extracellular cues both in time and space. Arraying heterotypic cells and their induction of migration and proliferation have been accomplished by physical or chemical adsorption of blocking agents to the photoresponsive substrates. Photo-induced production of biological active substances has become possible by tethering them to photoresponsive nanoparticles. These materials provide new methodology for engineering and exploring cellular functions.
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