Background: Grip strength reflects systemic muscle strength and mass and is reportedly associated with various metabolic variables. However, its prognostic association with dyslipidemia is unknown. We examined the association of grip strength and other physical fitness markers with the incidence of dyslipidemia among Japanese adults. Methods: A total of 16,149 Japanese (6,208 women) individuals aged 20–92 years who underwent a physical fitness test between April 2001 and March 2002 were included in this cohort study. Grip strength, vertical jump, single-leg balance with eyes closed, forward bending, and whole-body reaction time were evaluated at baseline. Dyslipidemia was annually determined based on fasting serum lipid profiles and self-reported dyslipidemia from April 2001 to March 2008. Results: During the follow-up period, 4,458 (44.9%) men and 2,461 (39.6%) women developed dyslipidemia. A higher relative grip strength (grip strength=body mass index) was associated with a lower incidence of dyslipidemia among both men and women (P for trend <0.001). Compared with those for the first septile, the hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the seventh septile were 0.56 (95% CI, 0.50–0.63) for men and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.58–0.81) for women. Moreover, relative vertical jump (vertical jump strength=body mass index) was also inversely associated with the incidence of dyslipidemia among both men and women (P for trend <0.001). There was no association between other physical fitness and dyslipidemia among both men and women. Conclusion: Relative grip strength and vertical jump may be useful risk markers of the incidence of dyslipidemia.
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