Sequence analysis of smiling revealed that participants control the timing of smiling in different ways than they do the timing of laughter. Though the sequence of smiling often follows a format of invitation, met by either acceptance or declination, the invitation is not required as with laughter. A smile can occur without an accompanying utterance or recognition point, and may signal the opening of a new topic. While laughter is often terminated quickly when the other speaks, a smile can be maintained while the other speaks or until the other's gaze elicits a different response. In multi-party interaction, laughter is broadcasted while smiles and gaze can be addressed to an individual party and thus play a different role in the interaction.