We have assessed the contributions of individual physical and chemical atmospheric processes on ozone formation under different weather conditions during a typical summer month (August 2005) using the MM5/CMAQ modelling system. We found that the ozone episodes in the Kanto region are dominated by three major patterns, of which Patterns I and II are regular summertime pressure patterns with a 26% and 16% frequency of occurrence, respectively. A process analysis at two typical sites in the Kanto region - one located in the central region of Tokyo and the other located in the rural areas of Kanto - indicates that ozone formation is mainly controlled by advection, vertical diffusion, dry deposition, and chemical processes. The ground-level ozone concentrations are enhanced mainly by the vertical mixing of ozone-rich air from aloft, whereas the dry deposition and chemical processes mainly deplete ozone. By investigating the effects of each process under different weather conditions, we found that the significant decrease in ozone removal due to the chemical and advection processes under conditions of high stagnation is the most important cause of the enhanced levels of ozone in the central region of Tokyo. The results of this study can contribute to a better understanding of ozone formation in the Kanto region, and they may be valuable for local policy makers for further development planning.
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