Lead halide perovskite single layers with three grain sizes are subjected to proton-beam irradiation in order to assess the durability and radiation tolerance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) against space radiation. Proton-beam irradiation is chosen because proton beams significantly affect solar cell performance in the space environment. We evaluate the effects of proton beams by focusing on the grain structure, crystal structure, and carrier lifetime of a perovskite single layer by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and time-resolved PL (TRPL). The results show that proton irradiation does not significantly affect the grain structure and crystal structure of perovskite layer; the TRPL results show that the carrier lifetime inside the grain is constant up to a fluence of 1 × 1014 p+/cm2 and decreases significantly at a fluence of 1 × 1015 p+/cm2. Proton-beam radiation tolerance of the grain inside the perovskite layer is dominant in the radiation tolerance of PSCs.
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