Among various energy-storage devices, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) are prominent power provision but show relatively low energy density. One way to increase the energy density of ECs is to move from carbon-based electric double-layer capacitors to pseudocapacitors, which manifest much higher capacitance. However, compared with carbon materials, the pseudocapacitive electrodes suffer from high resistance for electron and/or ion transfer, significantly restricting their capacity, rate capability and cyclability. Rational design of electrode materials offers opportunities to optimize their electrochemical performance, leading to devices with high energy density while maintaining high power density.This paper reviews the different approaches of electrodes striving to advance the energy and power density of ECs.
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