Phenomenological theory of the Mott transition is presented. When the critical temperature of the Mott transition is much higher than the quantum degeneracy temperature, the transition is essentially described by the Ising universality class. Below the critical temperature, phase separation or first-order transition occurs. However, if the critical point is involved in the Fermi degeneracy region, a quantum critical point appears at zero temperature. The originally single Mott critical point generates subsequent many unstable fixed points through various Fermi surface instabilities induced by the Mott criticality characterized by the diverging charge susceptibility or doublon susceptibility. This occurs in marginal quantum-critical region. Charge, magnetic and superconducting instabilitites compete severely under these critical charge fluctuations. The quantum Mott transition triggers multi-furcating criticality, which goes beyond the conventional concept of multicriticality in quantum phase transitions. Near the quantum Mott transition, the criticality generically drives growth of inhomogeneous structure in the momentum space with singular points of flat dispersion on the Fermi surface. The singular points determine the quantum dynamics of the Mott transition by the dynamical exponent z = 4. We argue that many of filling-control Mott transitions are classified to this category. Recent numerical results as well as experimental results on strongly correlated systems including transition metal oxides, organic materials and 3He layer adsorbed on a substrate are consistently analyzed especially in two-dimensional systems. The mechanism of cuprate high-T c superconductivity is also discussed in the light of the present insight and interpreted from the multi-furcation instability.
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