Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are important cellular regulators of key physiological processes in skeletal muscle. In this review, we explain how RONS regulate muscle contraction and signaling, and why they are important for membrane remodeling, protein turnover, gene expression, and epigenetic adaptation. We discuss how RONS regulate carbohydrate uptake and metabolism of skeletal muscle, and how they indirectly regulate fat metabolism through silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 3 (SIRT3). RONS are causative/associative signaling molecules, which cause sarcopenia or muscle hypertrophy. Regular exercise influences redox biology, metabolism, and anabolic/catabolic pathways in skeletal muscle in an intensity dependent manner.
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