In order to achieve the indoor localization with centimeter- to decimeter-level positioning accuracy under the use of the transmitters of 'indoor messaging system' (IMES), a method called 'real-time kinematic (RTK) Doppler pose estimation' is proposed. In this method, Doppler shifts are produced in the carrier waves transmitted from the IMES transmitters by moving the receiver antennas. The pose (position and orientation) of the receiver is then determined in real-time by using the Doppler shifts, inclination of the receiver, and geometric relation between the receiver antennas and transmitters. To evaluate the proposed method, an experiment with a mobile robot is conducted. The results of the experiment show that the proposed method can achieve a positioning accuracy of about 10 cm.