Short anterior chamber depth (ACD) is considered a risk factor of endothelial-cell loss after phacoemulsification. However, whether it is an independent risk factor or not remains controversial. We investigated the relationship between ascorbic acid (AA) concentrations in the aqueous humour (AqH) and ACD. We analysed 165 AqH samples of 97 patients (42 men and 55 women) who underwent small incision cataract surgery. AqH and plasma AA concentrations were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography - electrochemical detection method. Patient characteristics were compared between and within the sexes. As a result, age and ACD were significantly correlated with AqH AA concentrations (r = −0.206, P = 0.045; r = 0.339, P < 0.001) only in women. Moreover, plasma AA concentrations were significantly correlated with AqH AA concentrations (r = 0.420, P < 0.001; r = 0.316, P = 0.002) both in men and women. After adjusting for confounding factors (age and plasma AA concentrations), ACD was significantly and positively correlated with AqH AA concentrations (partial.r = 0.275, P = 0.009) only in women. In conclusion, AqH AA concentrations were reduced in women with smaller ACD. This may suggest that women with short ACD could be more susceptible to oxidative damage.
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