A cross-sectional survey was conducted to simultaneously evaluate sleep quality, duration, and phase in school-aged children and correlations between each dimension of sleep and daytime sleepiness were comprehensively examined. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with school-aged children enrolled in four public elementary schools in Joetsu city, Niigata prefecture in Japan (n = 1683). Among the collected responses (n = 1290), 1134 valid responses (547 boys and 587 girls) were analyzed (valid response rate was 87.90%). Data on daytime sleepiness, sleep quality (problems in sleeping at night), sleep duration (the average sleeping time during a week), and sleep phase (sleep timing: bedtime and rising time on weekdays, and sleep regularity: differences in bedtime and rising time between on weekdays and weekends) were collected. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the following dimensions were significantly correlated with daytime sleepiness: the decline in sleep quality [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.71–4.00], bedtime after 21:30 on weekdays (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.15–2.18), bedtime delay on weekends, compared to weekdays (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.27–2.41), and bedtime advance on weekends, compared to weekdays (AOR = 3.33, 95% CI = 1.78–6.20). Sleep dimensions that significantly affected daytime sleepiness in school-aged children are sleep quality, bedtime-timing, and regularity of bedtime. It is important to detect problems in night sleep and establish treatments, as well as to provide support for early bedding on weekdays and for a regular bedtime both on weekdays and on weekends to prevent daytime sleepiness in school-aged children.
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