Introduction: This study aimed to examine the cross-sectional associations of sedentary time and physical activity time with bone density in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The isotemporal substitution (IS) modeling was used to estimate the beneficial effects of behavioral changes (e.g., replacing sedentary time with physical activity time) on bone density in these patients. Materials and methods: A total of 92 patients with CKD (age: 65 ± 9 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate: 57 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m2) were included in this cross-sectional study. The times spent in sedentary behavior (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer. Through quantitative ultrasound measurements, the stiffness index, as a measure of bone density, was calculated using the speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Results: In multivariate analyses, the stiffness index was beneficially associated with the MVPA time (β = 0.748), but was not significantly associated with the SB and LPA times. The IS models showed that replacing 10 min/day of SB with the equivalent LPA time was not significantly associated with the stiffness index; however, replacing 10 min/day of SB with the equivalent MVPA time was beneficially associated with the stiffness index (β = 0.804). Conclusion: These results suggest that a small increase in MVPA time (e.g., 10 min/day) may attenuate the decline in bone density in patients with CKD. Our findings may provide insight for the development of novel strategies for improving bone health in patients with CKD.
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