The irregularity of socio-technical systems caused by various threats can lead to serious disturbance or accidents in our society. To avoid the disturbances, it is necessary to eliminate and diminish the threats or to establish barriers against the threats. That is the traditional safety approach. However, because these traditional safety approaches may not be sufficient to give stability to the socio-technical systems, a resilience approach may be needed. But in some cases that have been studied, and are described in this chapter, resilience has had no effects or resilience has caused specific accidents through functional resonance. Based on the case studies, a safety management process including a resilience approach is discussed and proposed as the conclusion.
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