Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can be utilized to characterize battery features, because it allows the dynamics of each elemental process of the battery reaction to be sensitively and separately determined without destruction of the cell. In addition, EIS is expected to be utilized for premonitory diagnosis of onboard batteries in electric vehicles. Here, an overview of the recent diagnosis technologies for determining the health of commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIB) using EIS is provided. We describe equivalent circuit design techniques while explaining and investigating physical and chemical phenomena for a wide range of measured impedance spectra, which are obtained using commercial LIBs. Attention is then focused on separation of the frequency responses of each electrode with or without a reference electrode, symmetric cell, and temperature control. Additionally, a square-current EIS (SC-EIS) technique, which we have proposed, is introduced for monitoring of large-scale LIB systems as a promising future technique.
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