Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides energy for the regulation of multiple cellular processes in living organisms. Capturing the spatiotemporal dynamics of ATP in single cells is fundamental to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cellular energy metabolism. However, it has remained challenging to visualize the dynamics of ATP in and between distinct intracellular organelles and its interplay with other signaling molecules. Using single fluorescent proteins, multicolor ATP indicators were developed, enabling the simultaneous visualization of subcellular ATP dynamics in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of cells derived from mammals, plants, and worms. Furthermore, in combination with additional fluorescent indicators, the dynamic interplay of ATP, cAMP, and Ca2+ could be visualized in activated brown adipocyte. This set of indicator tools will facilitate future research into energy metabolism.
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