Context: Recent case reports on malignant hyperthermia (MH)-like syndrome in physically active populations indicate potential associations among MH, exertional heat stroke (EHS), and exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER). However, an expert consensus for clinicians working with these populations is lacking. Objective: To provide current expert consensus on the (1) definition of MH; (2) history, etiology, and pathophysiology of MH; (3) epidemiology of MH; (4) association of MH with EHS and ER; (5) identification of an MH-like syndrome; (6) recommendations for acute management of an MH-like syndrome; (7) special considerations for physically active populations; and (8) future directions for research. Setting: An interassociation task force was formed by experts in athletic training, exercise science, anesthesiology, and emergency medicine. The "Round Table on Malignant Hyperthermia in Physically Active Populations" was convened at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, September 17-18, 2015. Conclusions: Clinicians should consider an MH-like syndrome when a diagnosis of EHS or ER cannot be fully explained by clinical signs and symptoms presented by a patient or when recurrent episodes of EHS or ER (or both) are unexplained. Further research is required to elucidate the genetic and pathophysiological links among MH, EHS, and ER.
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