Palaeotemperatures during the Albian-Coniacian in the northernmost Pacific have been determined on the basis of oxygen isotopic analysis of well-preserved brachiopod and molluscan shells from the Koryak Upland, Far East Russia. Those obtained from the calcitic brachiopod shells from the Albian range from 12.5 to 22.7 °C. The lower temperature level corresponds to winter seasons and the higher reflects summer temperatures. Probable winter isotopic palaeotemperatures, fluctuating from 10.9 to about 14.1 °C, were obtained from Coniacian bivalve shells. Presumed spring and autumn isotopic palaeotemperatures for the Coniacian, fluctuating from 14.1 to 17.7 °C, were obtained from rhynchonellid brachiopods and bivalves, all with calcitic shells, and ammonoids with aragonitic shells. Presumed summer isotopic palaeotemperatures varied between 18.5 °C to 22.4 °C. The new and previously published data suggest a short-term presence of polar ice during the Cretaceous (early Maastrichtian) only in the Southern Hemisphere on the Antarctic continent. Evidence pertaining to the Northern Hemisphere seems to suggest only occasional short-lived subfreezing conditions. These most probably occurred during polar winters in the early Valanginian, late Coniacian-early Santonian and early Maastrichtian. Temperatures in northern high latitudes during the course of even these winter seasons were probably not low enough for the formation of permanent sea ice. This may be a result of the lack of a continental massif in the North Pole area and a significant ameliorating effect of oceanic heat-transport poleward through the straits of Turgai and the Western Interior of North America.
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