The concentrations of microbial cells in suspensions can be measured with a graphite electrode modifed with adsorbed 4,4′-bipyridine, by using cyclic volummetry or differential pulse volummetry. The relationship between the peak current and the cell concentration for Saccharomyces cerevisiae is linear over the range 0.03 × 108-2.0 × 108 cells ml-1. Yeast, gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria gave different peak potentials, which may be useful for classification purposes. Electron transfer between the microbial cells and the 4,4′-bipyridine-modified electrode is mediated by coenzyme A in the cell wall.
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