Background: Despite proposals and guidelines to prevent baseball injuries in young players by societies and organizations, many shoulder and elbow injuries continue to occur among junior high school baseball players. In order to investigate the training conditions of junior high school baseball players and the risk factors for shoulder and elbow pain in the players, we conducted a questionnaire survey among junior high school baseball players throughout the country. Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted among junior high school baseball players in September 2016. Results: A total of 11,134 junior high school baseball players belonging to 495 teams responded to the survey. Among these, 4004 players trained every day of the week and 1151 players played baseball games every month with no off-season. Among 9752 players who did not have shoulder and/or elbow pain in the spring and summer of 2015, 19.2% of players experienced elbow pain over the course of one year, 13.6% of players experienced shoulder pain, and 28.0% complained of shoulder and/or elbow pain. The frequency of elbow pain was more than that of shoulder pain. At risk for shoulder pain were pitchers and catchers and second-year students, while risk factors for elbow pain were playing pitcher and catcher positions, pitching or throwing ≥300 balls per week, playing ≥10 games on average per month and being left-handed. Conclusion: Risk factors for shoulder pain were different from those for elbow pain. To prevent elbow pain, coaches should pay attention to pitchers and catchers and left-handed players and not allow players to pitch or throw ≥300 full-power balls per week or participate in ≥10 games per month. They should also pay attention to pitchers and catchers and second-year students to prevent shoulder pain. It is important for coaches to train multiple pitchers and catchers.
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