Simplification of the genetic code: Restricted diversity of genetically encoded amino acids

Akio Kawahara-Kobayashi, Akiko Masuda, Yuhei Araiso, Yoko Sakai, Atsushi Kohda, Masahiko Uchiyama, Shun Asami, Takayoshi Matsuda, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Naoshi Dohmae, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Takanori Kigawa, Osamu Nureki, Daisuke Kiga

研究成果: Article

14 引用 (Scopus)

抜粋

At earlier stages in the evolution of the universal genetic code, fewer than 20 amino acids were considered to be used. Although this notion is supported by a wide range of data, the actual existence and function of the genetic codes with a limited set of canonical amino acids have not been addressed experimentally, in contrast to the successful development of the expanded codes. Here, we constructed artificial genetic codes involving a reduced alphabet. In one of the codes, a tRNAAla variant with the Trp anticodon reassigns alanine to an unassigned UGG codon in the Escherichia coli S30 cell-free translation system lacking tryptophan. We confirmed that the efficiency and accuracy of protein synthesis by this Trp-lacking code were comparable to those by the universal genetic code, by an amino acid composition analysis, green fluorescent protein fluorescence measurements and the crystal structure determination. We also showed that another code, in which UGU/UGC codons are assigned to Ser, synthesizes an active enzyme. This method will provide not only new insights into primordial genetic codes, but also an essential protein engineering tool for the assessment of the early stages of protein evolution and for the improvement of pharmaceuticals.

元の言語English
ページ(範囲)10576-10584
ページ数9
ジャーナルNucleic acids research
40
発行部数20
DOI
出版物ステータスPublished - 2012 11
外部発表Yes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

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    Kawahara-Kobayashi, A., Masuda, A., Araiso, Y., Sakai, Y., Kohda, A., Uchiyama, M., Asami, S., Matsuda, T., Ishitani, R., Dohmae, N., Yokoyama, S., Kigawa, T., Nureki, O., & Kiga, D. (2012). Simplification of the genetic code: Restricted diversity of genetically encoded amino acids. Nucleic acids research, 40(20), 10576-10584. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks786