We were interested in the effects of immobilization (IM), a single bout of exercise (E) and immobilization followed by exercise (EIM) on memory and oxidative damage of macromolecules in hippocampus of rat brain. Eight hours of IM resulted in impairment of passive avoidance test (memory retrieval deficit) and increased latency to start locomotion in an open-field test. Two hours of swimming did not significantly alter the memory retrieval deficit and latency, while the EIM group had longer latency and similar memory than control and E groups. The oxidative damage of lipids, proteins and nuclear DNA increased significantly in IM group and no increase was observed in E and EIM animals. The activity of proteasome was not altered in any groups. The activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) was decreased in IM group (P < 0.05), this down regulation was not observed in E and EIM groups. These data suggest that oxidative damage of macromolecules is associated with impaired cognitive function. Single bout of exercise after immobilization eliminates the oxidative damage of macromolecules and normalizes memory function, probably by its ability to restore the activity level of GS and eliminate the consequences of immobilization-induced prolonged efflux of glutamate.
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