Smiling enemies: Young children better recall mean individuals who smile

Xianwei Meng*, Tatsunori Ishii, K. Sugimoto, Ruiting Song, Yusuke Moriguchi, Katsumi Watanabe


研究成果: Article査読

2 被引用数 (Scopus)


Remembering whether a person is cooperative is essential in social interactions. It has been shown that adults have better memory of a person who showed an incongruence between emotional expression and expected behavior (e.g., smiling while stealing). To examine whether children would show similar emotional incongruity effects, we examined 70 children aged 5 or 6 years. They obtained coins that could be exchanged later for rewards (stickers) by answering quiz questions. Then, they participated in the coin collection game where individual persons with smiling or angry expressions appeared one at a time on a computer monitor. These same individuals then either gave coins to or took coins away from the children, leading to congruent (smiling giver and angry taker) and incongruent (smiling taker and angry giver) conditions. After the game, children needed to choose between two faces to indicate which one previously appeared in the game. Participants recognized faces better under the incongruent conditions. In particular, the smiling taker was recognized significantly better than the angry taker, whereas no difference was observed for the smiling and angry givers. Evidently, 5- and 6-year-olds better remember individuals whose facial expression or appearance is incongruent with their expected behavior.

ジャーナルJournal of Experimental Child Psychology
出版ステータスPublished - 2019 12月

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 実験心理学および認知心理学
  • 発達心理学および教育心理学


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