Organoammonium-montmorillonite intercalation compounds were prepared by solid-state ion exchange reactions which we have developed recently in order to understand the nature of the solid-state intercalation reactions. The reactions were carried out by grinding the mixtures of homoionic-montmorillonites and organoammonium (dodecyltrimethylammonium, tetramethylammonium, and tetrabutylammonium) halides (chloride, bromide, and iodide) at room temperature. Both of the counter anions of the organoammonium salts and the interlayer exchangeable cations of montmorillonite are concerned with the solid-state ion exchange reactions, indicating that the solid-solid reactions are thermodynamically governed. The solid-state ion exchange reactions lead to novel and different reactivities and intercalation compounds from those of conventional solution methods.
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