Twenty years have passed since the first professional sport league which represents the home town was established in Japan. After the sport marketing demand increased rapidly, much research was focused on sport marketing. Many variables were introduced to explain spectator attendance, but unfortunately only a few were hypothesized to describe why spectators may cease to attend games. Much research has focused on leisure field constraints; this chapter reviews the few leisure constraints articles that have been applied in a few sport marketing fields. Late in the chapter, the recent research that focuses both on attendance and constraints in the sport marketing realm is reviewed. At the end, suggestions for future research related to spectator constraints are presented.
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