Reports have indicated that high-intensity resistance training (RT) increases or does not change arterial stiffness. Meanwhile, higher stature has been suggested to have a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and arterial stiffness. Stature could explain the disagreement in the reported effects of RT on arterial stiffness. This study was aimed at investigating whether stature is related to RT-induced change in arterial stiffness. Thirty-six young Japanese men were assigned to the control (n = 15) and training groups (n = 21). RT programme consisted of supervised bicep curls 3 days per week for 4 weeks (5 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1-repetition maximum). Arterial compliance (AC) and β-stiffness index (via combination of ultrasound and carotid pressure waveforms) were measured in all participants. To verify the effect of stature on RT-induced change in arterial stiffness, the training group was divided into tertiles of stature: lower, middle, and higher stature groups (each group, n = 7). RT significantly decreased AC and increased β-stiffness index in only the lower stature group (both, P < 0.05). Moreover, stature was positively associated with decreased AC and negatively associated with increased β-stiffness index, even after adjusting for confounders including changes in relative strength, pulse pressure, and arterial distension (P < 0.05). The present results suggest that short stature contributes to the increase in arterial stiffness induced by RT in young Japanese men. The present findings suggest that stature should be taken into consideration when designing/engaging in RT programme, due to potential implications for cardiovascular health. Highlights Participants were divided into 3 groups according to tertiles of statures, and arterial stiffness of lower stature group (range of stature: 161.0–169.8 cm) increased after resistance training in young Japanese men, but not middle and higher stature group. Stature was negatively associated with the changed arterial stiffness by resistance training. This study suggests that short stature contributes to the elevation in arterial stiffness elicited by resistance training.
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