When glucose (120mg/ml) was used as a carbon source, Aspergillus niger Yang no. 2. showed a markedly low citric acid productivity in shake culture (15.4 mg/ml) but a high productivity in semi-solid and surface cultures (72.3 mg/ml and 67.6 mg/ml, respectively). Since the viscosity of the medium was assumed to be one of the important factors for citric acid productivity in shake culture, the effects of the addition of viscous substances on citric acid productivity of strain Yang no. 2 were examined. The addition of 2.0-6.0 mg gelatin/ml as a viscous additive to the medium containing glucose as a carbon source increased slightly the medium viscosity but substantially increased the citric acid productivity in shake culture to levels of 52.0-53.3 mg/ml, about 3.4 times as much as that without gelatin. However, no influence of gelatin addition was observed in semi-solid and surface cultures, i.e. under static cultivation conditions. Different mycelial morphologies of the strain were observed when cultivations were done in shake culture with or without the addition of gelatin. Addition of 5.0 mg agar/ml, 5.0 mg carageenan/ml, 2.5 mg carboxymethylcellulose/ml and 2.5 mg polyethylene glycol 6000/ml, to the medium containing glucose as a carbon source also increased the citric acid productivity in shake culture to levels of 39.2-54.7 mg/ml. Since Yang no. 2 does not utilize these viscous substances, these results suggested that the viscous substances functioned as protectants for the mycelium from physiological stresses due to shaking and as a consequence resulted in a remarkably increased citric acid productivity in shake culture.
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