Problem Statement: Designing a learning strategy in physical education is essential. An important learning strategy in physical education is the notion of “conceptions of learning,” which are considered to be possessed by the learner himself/herself.Combined with the uniqueness of physical education as an academic subject, where learning methods are directed toward motor learning, it can be assumed that conceptions of learning specific to physical education have been developed in learners’ minds. Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a “physical education learning concept scale for elementary school students” and revealJapanese elementary school students’ viewson learning in physical education. Approach:A pilot survey was conducted, followed by the main survey with 1,403 public elementary school students across Japan using the questionnaire survey method. Results: 1) The exploratory factor analysis revealed that the physical education learning concept scale comprisesfive factors: “motor skills learning,” “mind and body improvement,” “cultivation of communication skills,” “perceived attraction of physical activity,” and “acquisition of knowledge on physical body and movements.” 2) Reliability and a certain degree of validity of the physical education learning concept scale was confirmed by its internal consistency. Further, confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated factor invariance. 3) The analyses on grade and gender differences revealed that 6th graders had significantly higher scores than 5th graders on “motor skills learning” and “acquisition of knowledge on physical body and movements,” and that girls had a significantly higher score than boys on “cultivation of communication skills.” Conclusion:Lessons based on active learning on the part of learners should be keenly promoted. We must seek to develop independent learners while paying close attention to viewpoints that could promote such a form of learning.
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