In the cruciform gallery of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, red, orange, white and black pigments were widely painted on the surfaces of pillars, walls and friezes. The application sequence of the pigments is different from area to area. The following substances were confirmed from the pigments: hematite (laterite), minium, calcium oxalate hydrates (whewellite and weddellite), Pb-Cl compounds (cotunnite, laurionite and blixite), calcium phosphates (whitlockite), gypsum, hydrocerussite, calcite, anglesite, lead dioxide, azurite and carbon black. The orange pigment (minium) underlies the red pigment (hematite). The former may have been applied at the time of the foundation (the Angkor Wat style period), and the latter in the Bayon style period or later, but mainly before the early 17th century of the current era.
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