A subzero temperature operating biosensor was constructed using immobilized quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (PQQGDH), glassy carbon electrode, soluble electron mediator (ferrocene monocarboxylic acid), and an organic solvent, ethylene glycol, as an antifreezing reagent. Using this biosensor, glucose concentration can be determined even at −7°C. At this temperature, the response was 20% of that obtained at 20°C. This is the first study describing a subzero temperature operating biosensor. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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