Background: In normal conditions, proteins are not present in the urine, however, exercise of long duration could result in proteinurea. Increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are formed during exhaustive physical exercise and causes alterations to cellular proteins. Materials: In the present study serum and urinary nitrotyrosine and protein carbonyl levels were measured before and after each run of a 4-day super-marathon race. Result: Serum nitrotyrosine and protein carbonyl levels increased after the first (93 km) day running and reached a plateau on the second (120 km), third (56 km) and forth (59 km) days of the competition. A significant correlation was found between urinary and serum protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine levels (r = 0.78, r = 0.71, respectively). A large percentage of urinary proteins were carbonylated and nitrated. Therefore, it appears that clearance of oxidized proteins in certain conditions occurs not only by the proteolytic pathways but also by filtration and urination. Conclusion: Data reveals that exhaustive aerobic exercise causes oxidative stress and increases the nitration and carbonylation of serum proteins. The presence of carbonyl and nitrotyrosine in proteins of the urine might reflect oxidative stress and could serve as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for exercise physiology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry