1T-1H metal-semiconductor interfaces in two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) play a crucial role in utilizing the band gaps of TMDs for applications in electronic devices. Although the 1T-1H two-phase structure has been observed in exfoliated 2D nanosheets and chemically or physically treated TMDs, it cannot in principle be achieved in large-scale TMD monolayers grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which is a fabrication method for electronic device applications, because of the metastable nature of the 1T phase. In this study we report CVD growth of 1T-1H two phase TMD monolayers by controlling thermal strains and alloy compositions. It was found that in-plane thermal strains arising from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between TMD monolayers and substrates can drive the 1H to 1T transition during cooling after CVD growth. Moreover, grain boundaries in the 2D crystals act as the nucleation sites of the 1T phase and the lattice strain perturbations from alloying noticeably promote the formation of the metastable 1T phase. This work has an important implication in tailoring structure and properties of CVD grown 2D TMDs by phase engineering.
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