The expectations of the impact of technology for language teaching and learning have often exceeded the actual results themselves, where emerging technologies are often believed to be more effective than existing ones simply because they are newer, with little consideration of the differences in associated pedagogies (see Bax, 2003; Levy & Stockwell, 2006). Technology is often believed to be inherently motivating for students and linked to the development of autonomy. The realities of technology and its influence on motivation are proving to be somewhat more complex than perceived for both language teachers and learners (Stockwell, 2013). Technology can provide opportunities for motivated learners but is unlikely to lead to motivation or autonomous behavior in many learners unless appropriate pedagogies are applied that capitalize on the affordances of the technologies and include sufficient training in how to use the technologies for language learning purposes (see Reinders, 2018a). At the same time, the role of teachers in the classroom and their attitudes toward their environment and the pressures that they face (Mercer & Kostoulas, 2018) can also impact technology implementation. This article brings together these three interrelated areas and explores how they link to technology: learner motivation and autonomy, teacher psychology, and pedagogical considerations.
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