The anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process has been regarded as an attractive alternative process to treat wastewater containing high ammonium concentrations. By the implementation of anammox process at moderately low temperatures (<25°C), the anammox process will be applied to more various industrial wastewater treatments. In this study, we established enrichment cultures of anammox bacteria from freshwater sediments by using an up-flow column reactor equipped with porous polyester nonwoven fabric at moderately low temperatures. Their nitrogen conversion rates reached 0.07-0.26kg-N/m3/d. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene from enrichment cultures revealed the presence of various anammox bacteria affiliated with unknown anammox bacteria as well as known anammox candidates, i.e., Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and Candidatus Brocadia fulgida, Candidatus Scalindua wagneri. Anammox bacterial populations were influenced by enrichment conditions, i.e., seed sediments and temperature.
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