Purpose – This paper aims to clarify how to develop characters business models by utilizing new business concepts. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines three cases in Japan to innovate characters business models: Duffy, Hello Kitty and Kumamon. Findings – The paper suggests that utilizing experience-based promotions, open innovation and a royalty-free strategy enhances customer loyalty to characters, expands customer targets and encourages autonomous collaboration of stakeholders. Originality/value – These case studies clarify how new business models aim to increase customer loyalty to characters and widen customer targets beyond generation, industry and country.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Strategy and Management