The genome sequence of Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin-converting phage and the molecular mechanisms of unstable lysogeny

Yoshihiko Sakaguchi, Tetsuya Hayashi, Ken Kurokawa, Keisuke Nakayama, Kenshiro Oshima, Yukako Fujinaga, Makoto Ohnishi, Eiichi Ohtsubo, Masahira Hattori, Keiji Oguma

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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTXs) produced by Clostridium botulinum are among the most poisonous substances known. Of the seven types of BoNTXs, genes for type C1 and D toxins (BoNTX/C1 and D) are carried by bacteriophages. The gene for exoenzyme C3 also resides on these phages. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of c-st, a representative of BoNTX/C1-converting phages. The genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 185,682 bp with 404-bp terminal direct repeats, the largest known temperate phage genome. We identified 198 potential protein-coding regions, including the genes for production of BoNTX/C1 and exoenzyme C3. Very exceptionally, as a viable bacteriophage, a number of insertion sequences were found on the c-st genome. By analyzing the molecular structure of the c-st genome in lysogens, we also found that it exists as a circular plasmid prophage. These features account for the unstable lysogeny of BoNTX phages, which has historically been called "pseudolysogeny." The PCR scanning analysis of other BoNTX/C1 and D phages based on the c-st sequence further revealed that BoNTX phages comprise a divergent phage family, probably generated by exchanging genomic segments among BoNTX phages and their relatives.

元の言語English
ページ(範囲)17472-17477
ページ数6
ジャーナルProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102
発行部数48
DOI
出版物ステータスPublished - 2005 11 29
外部発表Yes

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General

これを引用

Sakaguchi, Y., Hayashi, T., Kurokawa, K., Nakayama, K., Oshima, K., Fujinaga, Y., Ohnishi, M., Ohtsubo, E., Hattori, M., & Oguma, K. (2005). The genome sequence of Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin-converting phage and the molecular mechanisms of unstable lysogeny. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(48), 17472-17477. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0505503102