Metastasis is a complex event in cancer progression and causes most deaths from cancer. Repeated transplantation of metastatic cancer cells derived from transplanted murine organs can be used to select the population of highly metastatic cancer cells; this method is called as in vivo selec-tion. The in vivo selection method and highly metastatic cancer cell lines have contributed to reveal the molecular mechanisms of cancer metastasis. Here, we present an overview of the methodology for the in vivo selection method. Recent comparative analysis of the transplantation methods for metastasis have revealed the divergence of metastasis gene signatures. Even cancer cells that metastasize to the same organ show various metastatic cascades and gene expression patterns by changing the transplantation method for the in vivo selection. These findings suggest that the selection of metastasis models for the study of metastasis gene signatures has the potential to influence research results. The study of novel gene signatures that are identified from novel highly metastatic cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) will be helpful for understanding the novel mechanisms of metastasis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry