An intercomparison study involving eight long-range transport models for sulfur deposition in East Asia has been initiated. The participating models included Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks, with a wide variety of vertical resolutions and numerical approaches. Results from this study, in which models used common data sets for emissions, meteorology, and dry, wet and chemical conversion rates, are reported and discussed. Model results for sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentrations, wet deposition amounts, for the period January and May 1993, are compared with observed quantities at 18 surface sites in East Asia. At many sites the ensemble of models is found to have high skill in predicting observed quantities. At other sites all models show poor predictive capabilities. Source-receptor relationships estimated by the models are also compared. The models show a high degree of consistency in identifying the main source-receptor relationships, as well as in the relative contributions of wet/dry pathways for removal. But at some locations estimated deposition amounts can vary by a factor or 5. The influence of model structure and parameters on model performance is discussed. The main factors determining the deposition fields are the emissions and underlying meteorological fields. Model structure in terms of vertical resolution is found to be more important than the parameterizations used for chemical conversion and removal, as these processes are highly coupled and often work in compensating directions.
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