The Nucleation and Growth of Cu Nanoclusters on Silicon Surfaces

Andy Singh, Katharina Luening, Sean Brennan, Takayuki Homma, Nobuhiro Kubo, Piero Pianetta

    研究成果: Conference contribution

    2 被引用数 (Scopus)


    Due to the recent adoption of copper interconnect technology by the semiconductor industry, there has been great interest in understanding the kinetics and mechanisms of copper metal deposition on silicon wafer surfaces in ultra pure water (UPW) solutions. To study the kinetics of the copper deposition mechanism on silicon surfaces, silicon [100] samples were immersed in non-deoxygenated and deoxygenated UPW solutions contaminated with a copper concentration of 100 ppb with dipping times ranging from 5 to 300 seconds and then measured using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). By measuring the Cu fluorescence signal as function of angle of incidence of the incoming x-rays, it was possible to ascertain whether the deposited copper was atomically dispersed or particle-like in nature. It was established that in non-deoxygenated UPW, the copper is incorporated atomically into the silicon surface oxide as a copper oxide, while in deoxygenated UPW, copper is deposited on the silicon surface in the form of nanoparticles. The heights of these particles were determined by performing quantitative fits to the angle scans using a spherical cap model to describe the Cu clusters. The results were consistent with measurements conducted with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Finally, the surface density of the metallic copper nanoparticles deposited in deoxygenated UPW was determined for the whole range of dipping times from the AFM measurements, indicating that Ostwald Ripening mechanisms, where large particles grow at the expense of smaller, less thermodynamically stable particles, describe the growth of Cu nanoclusters in deoxygenated UPW solutions.

    ホスト出版物のタイトルSynchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: 8th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation
    出版社American Institute of Physics Inc.
    出版ステータスPublished - 2004 5月 12
    イベント8th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation - San Francisco, United States
    継続期間: 2003 8月 252003 8月 29


    Other8th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation
    国/地域United States
    CitySan Francisco

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • 物理学および天文学(全般)


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