Background: The Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) model of human functioning uses the behavioral processes of acceptance, mindfulness, and values, which together compose psychological flexibility, the ability to contact the present moment more fully as a conscious human being and to either change or persist when doing so serves valued ends. To increase the effectiveness of interventions in the medical treatment of diabetes, it is important to examine the effects on patients with type 2 diabetes of promoting the active component patterns of ACT. This study explores these points. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to type 2 diabetes patients who were registered in the database of a research service provider, and data was collected and analyzed from a total of 211 patients (mean age ± SD was 58.84 years old ±10.25, 14.69% were females). Results: Cluster analysis yielded four clusters: “Average” (average levels of acceptance, mindfulness, and values), “Flexibility” (high levels of acceptance, mindfulness, and values), “Values/low” (average levels of acceptance and mindfulness, and a low level of values), “Values/high” (average levels of acceptance and mindfulness and a high level of values). Patients in the “Flexibility” and “Values/high” clusters had significantly fewer depressive symptoms than the other clusters. However, members of the “Values/high” cluster demonstrated significantly higher glycated hemoglobin levels than those in the other clusters. Conclusions: The results above indicate that each part of the ACT model is necessary for managing diabetes treatment while improving quality of life. The importance of values is emphasized in ACT for diabetes patients, but we argue, given our results, that acceptance and mindfulness are very important for Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. This study is limited to Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. In further research, the subject population must be expanded to people from other areas and of different racial backgrounds.
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