Background: In understanding the onset factors associated with Plantar heel pain and the structure of heel fat pad, measuring its thickness is the most basic frequently reported evaluation. This study aimed to determine changes to heel fat pad thickness associated with age and gender and the relationship between heel fat pad thickness, age, and physique in Japanese. Methods: This study was carried out in 1126 healthy individuals between the ages of 1 and 96 years. Participants were categorized according to age. Heel fat pad thickness was measured with an ultrasonography device using a linear ultrasonography probe. Findings: Heel fat pad tends to become thicker from ages 1–5 to 30–44 years and thinner from ages 30–44 to 80–96 years. Heel fat pad thickness in males and females was similar within each group, and males had higher heel fat pad thickness than females of corresponding ages. Heel fat pad thickness of males had a good correlation with height and body mass. Moreover, male heel fat pad thickness had a fair correlation with age. Heel fat pad thickness of females had a moderate correlation with height and body mass and a fair correlation with age. Interpretation: Heel fat pad thickness became thicker from ages 1–5 to 30–44 years and thinner from ages 30–44 to 80–96 years. Females had a lower heel fat pad thickness than males of corresponding ages. This result suggests that higher heel fat pad thickness in males is related to body mass and height.
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