We analyze a model of vertical (dis)integration between manufacturing and design in a monopolistically competitive market. Specialized input manufacturers can serve multiple design firms and the manufacturer-designer pairs negotiate a non-binding contract to share input customization cost and production surplus. Hand-collected data on 387 product lines from 118 semiconductor firms are used to predict the firm's decision to outsource manufacturing. We find that, for instance, the use of design tools that facilitate collaboration and process technologies that facilitate learning are both positively associated with outsourcing, consistent with the model's prediction.
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