Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we performed comparative analysis among stratigraphic information and the Kaguya (SELENE) GRS data of the ∼2500-km-diameter South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin and its surroundings. Results indicate that the surface rock materials (including ancient crater materials, mare basalts, and possible SPA impact melt) are average to slightly elevated in K and Th with respect to the rest of the Moon. Also, this study demonstrates that K and Th have not significantly changed since the formation of SPA. The elemental signatures of the impact basin of Fe, Ti, Si, O through time include evidence for resurfacing by ejecta materials and late-stage volcanism. The oldest surfaces of SPA are found to be oxygen-depleted during the heavy bombardment period relative to later stages of geologic development, followed by both an increase in silicon and oxygen, possibly due to ejecta sourced from outside of SPA, and subsequent modification due to mare basaltic volcanism, which increased iron and titanium within SPA. The influence of the distinct geologic history of SPA and surroundings on the mineralogic and elemental abundances is evident as shown in our investigation.
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