Tools to control protein-protein interactions by external stimuli have been extensively developed. For this purpose, thermal stimulation can be utilized in addition to light. In this study, we identify a monoclonal antibody termed C13 mAb, which shows an approximately 480-fold decrease in the affinity constant at 37 °C compared to that at 4 °C. Next, we apply this temperature-dependent protein-peptide interaction for one-step protein purifications. We term this THermal-Elution-based TAg system as the THETA system, in which gel-immobilized C13 mAb-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv) (termed THETAL) is able to bind with proteins tagged by C13 mAb-epitope(s) (THETAS) at 4 °C and thermally release at 37–42 °C. Moreover, to reveal the temperature-dependent interaction mechanism, molecular dynamics simulations are performed along with epitope mapping experiments. Overall, the high specificity and reversibility of the temperature-dependent features of the THETA system will support a wide variety of future applications such as thermogenetics.
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